Center for Research on Educational Opportunity Research and Publications

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Effects of School and Classroom Contexts on Student Achievement Gains in Indiana

Nationally, school and classroom integration policies are contested. Dr. Bill Carbonaro is examining whether (and how) the school and classroom context affects student learning for high and low income students. “Frog pond effects”—whether students have a relatively high or low rank relative to their classroom and school peers—are critical to understanding how different classroom and school contexts affect student outcomes. Yet, most data sets lack such information. With state administrative data from CREO’s partnership with Indiana DOE, this study is unique because of its ability to examine contextual effects, to track achievement growth within students, and to measure classroom- and school-level frog pond effects with great precision. 

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